In your first picture, there is a spot on the DRV8825 that looks like it could be damaged, but it could also be some other residue. Could you inspect that spot to see if it can be wiped away or if it is damage to the chip's case?
I also noticed that you do not have the !RESET pin pulled high. You need to pull both the !RESET and !SLEEP pins high to enable the DRV8825 board, which is stated under the "Control inputs" section on its product page. Can you connect the !RESET pin to the 5V line and try again to see if that changes anything?
You mentioned trying two DRV8825 boards. Can you post pictures of your other DRV8825? If there are no signs of damage on that board, can you test it in your setup to check if it is working?
What did you set your VREF to for both drivers?