Design the software and the hardware for servo controllers

I search information about design the software and the hardware of controllers especially servo controllers.
I have several questions about this subject and I will glad if you can write your opinion and add some relevant links.

A. I want to understand these things:
A.1. What is servo control?
A.2. What is developing recognition process?
A.3. What are automatic tuning controller parameters? What is Automatic unit?
A.4. What is developing of controller algorithms?
A.5. What is controller simulation?
A.6. What is writing real time code for controllers?
A.7. What are servo controllers?
A.7. What is adaptive control?

B. I search any relevant information, website links, or your comments about these things:
B.1. writing algorithms in digital control (difference equations and the analytical analysis [like Z transform and others analytical analysis])
B.2. simulation for controllers in Matlab
B.3. wire (not wireless) communication between the controller and the processor
B.4. operation systems that use in the controllers
B.5. smart electronic board with processor that do the control on mechanics systems