The driver version I downloaded was 18.104.22.1681. I linked directly to it from the Pololu web site just to be sure I got the right one.
Attached is the list you asked for from the Device manager. This was done with the CP2104 plugged in. As you can see, the only device showing is my wireless mouse, which was plugged into another USB port.
I tried going the "Add Legacy Hardware" route at one point, but it didn't work so I removed it. This computer is a USB 3.0 as you can see, but I believe the other two computers I tried were USB 2 machines.
I am using your USB to Serial Carrier (item 1308) because it is less expensive. Do you think your other USB-Serial carrier board would be any better?
I'm no Windows expert, but it seems like something is interfering with the "plug and play" operation.
BTW, I went into Windows System Setup under Apps and I found a reference to Silicon Labs (see enclosed screen shot), and I tried to uninstall it. When I did, I got an error (screen shot also enclosed). Not sure if this could be the cause of the issue or why it won't uninstall. It says ...slabvcp.inf not found. Don't know if this is relevant or not.